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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 365-366  

Multiple colorectal adenomas syndrome with malignant degeneration in multiple colorectal polyps: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography findings


Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication12-Oct-2017

Correspondence Address:
Punit Sharma
Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, 13, Canal Circular Road, Kolkata - 700 054, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnm.IJNM_77_17

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   Abstract 


Multiple colorectal adenomas (MCRAs) syndrome is a genetic syndrome characterized by multiple colorectal polyps. Patients usually present late in late fourth or fifth decade of life. They have a high risk for developing malignancy. We here present such case of a 61-year-old man with MCRAs who developed malignant degeneration of multiple colorectal polyps, which was demonstrated on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

Keywords: Adenoma, fluorodeoxyglucose, multiple colorectal adenomas, positron emission tomography-computed tomography


How to cite this article:
Sharma P. Multiple colorectal adenomas syndrome with malignant degeneration in multiple colorectal polyps: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography findings. Indian J Nucl Med 2017;32:365-6

How to cite this URL:
Sharma P. Multiple colorectal adenomas syndrome with malignant degeneration in multiple colorectal polyps: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography findings. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Feb 26];32:365-6. Available from: https://www.ijnm.in/text.asp?2017/32/4/365/216567



A 61-year-old male presented with 3 months history of episodes of bleeding per rectum. A colonoscopy was performed which revealed ulcerative lesion at anorectal junction. Also noted were multiple sessile and pedunculated polyps in the entire colon, but none were ulcerated or obstructive. A biopsy was performed from the anorectal lesion which showed Grade 2 adenocarcinoma. Biopsy from one other sigmoid colon polyp was negative for malignancy. Hence, a diagnosis of polyposis coli with anorectal adenocarcinoma was made. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 19.3 ng/ml (normal <5 ng/ml). A contrast enhanced 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed for staging. Maximum intensity projection PET images revealed multiple 18 F-FDG avid foci in the abdomen [Figure 1]a, arrows]. PET-CT images reveal mildly enhancing 18 F-FDG avid (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax]-10.3) circumferential wall thickening involving lower rectum and anorectal junction [Figure 1]b and [Figure 1]c, arrows], along with multiple 18 F-FDG avid (SUVmax-4.2) mesorectal and pararectal nodes [Figure 1]d and [Figure 1]e, arrows]. Also, noted were multiple small and large 18 F-FDG avid polyps in the colon [Figure 1]f,[Figure 1]g,[Figure 1]h,[Figure 1]i, arrows], largest in the descending colon [Figure 1]i, SUVmax-6.5]. There were no distant metastases on PET-CT. The 18 F-FDG avid colorectal polyps were reported as dysplastic with possible malignant transformation. A repeat colonoscopy was performed, and biopsy was performed specifically from the large hepatic flexure polyp and descending colon polyp mentioned in PET/CT report. Biopsy confirmed malignant transformation in both of them. The patient underwent total colectomy with nodal dissection and ileostomy, followed by adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy. The patient is doing fine at 6 months follow-up, with serum CEA of 2.1 ng/ml (normal <5 ng/ml).
Figure 1: Maximum intensity projection positron emission tomography images revealed multiple 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid foci in the abdomen (a, arrows). Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images reveal mildly enhancing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid circumferential wall thickening involving lower rectum and anorectal junction (b and c, arrows), along with multiple 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid mesorectal and pararectal nodes (d and e, arrows). Also noted were multiple small and large 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid polyps in the colon (f-i, arrows), largest in the descending colon (i)

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The presence of polyps is a risk factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma, and the risk is dependent on size, grade of dysplasia, and number of polyps.[1],[2] Hence, conditions associated with multiple colorectal adenomas (MCRAs) are, therefore, the high risk for developing colorectal cancers. The most common polyposis disorders include familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MCRAs syndromes.[3],[4] In contrast to FAP who present at puberty and have positive family history, MCRAs patients usually present late in late fourth or fifth decade of life and might not have a family history, as in the present case.[5] The number of polyps is usually more than 10 but less than 100, while that in the case of FAP they are numerous (>100). Extra-colonic manifestations of FAP may be rarely present, though not seen in the present patient. Similar to FAP where it is always genetic associated with APC gene mutation, MCRA could be genetic but can be sporadic type well. Due to late presentation and lower risk of malignancy compared to FAP colon preserving surgery can be contemplated in MCRAs, while colectomy is the treatment of choice for FAP.[6] Unfortunately, in this patient, few other polyps also showed malignant degeneration and hence had to undergo total colectomy. The present case demonstrates the potential utility of 18 F-FDG PET-CT for identifying malignant degeneration of polyps in patients with MCRAs [7],[8] and thus accurately guiding the biopsy.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Urso ED, Delaini GG, Campi M, Bacchelli C, Pucciarelli S. Colorectal polyposis: Clinical presentation and surgical treatment. Colorectal Dis 2015;17 Suppl 1:61-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Conteduca V, Sansonno D, Russi S, Dammacco F. Precancerous colorectal lesions (Review). Int J Oncol 2013;43:973-84.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Jung I, Gurzu S, Turdean GS. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes. World J Gastrointest Oncol 2015;7:347-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Patel SG, Ahnen DJ. Familial colon cancer syndromes: An update of a rapidly evolving field. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2012;14:428-38.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Jasperson KW, Tuohy TM, Neklason DW, Burt RW. Hereditary and familial colon cancer. Gastroenterology 2010;138:2044-58.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Campos FG. Surgical treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis: Dilemmas and current recommendations. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:16620-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gollub MJ, Grewal RK, Panu N, Thipphavong S, Sohn M, Zheng J, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detection of advanced colorectal adenoma. Clin Radiol 2014;69:611-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Li W, Fan W. Using 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography to judge benign or malignant colorectal hypermetabolic lesions. Chin J Cancer 2010;29:306-11.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


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