|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 239-240
Extraneural metastases in an operated case of pinealoblastoma identified on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography
Piyush Chandra, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Nilendu Purandare, Venkatesh Rangarajan
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||13-Jun-2017|
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital, Dr. E. Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Extraneural (EN) metastases and leptomeningeal (LM) metastases from certain primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, such as pinealoblastomas, are not very common and mostly detected on autopsy. Clinical detection of this entity is, however, very rare and can be attributed to increasing overall survival or probably increased use of surveillance imaging in patients with brain tumors. We demonstrate through this case the potential adjunctive role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the identification of asymptomatic LM/EN metastases in high-risk primary CNS tumors.
Keywords: Central nervous system, extraneural, fluorodeoxyglucose, leptomeningeal, metastases, magnetic resonance imaging, pinealoblastoma, positron emission tomography/computed tomography
|How to cite this article:|
Chandra P, Shah S, Agrawal A, Purandare N, Rangarajan V. Extraneural metastases in an operated case of pinealoblastoma identified on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indian J Nucl Med 2017;32:239-40
|How to cite this URL:|
Chandra P, Shah S, Agrawal A, Purandare N, Rangarajan V. Extraneural metastases in an operated case of pinealoblastoma identified on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Apr 16];32:239-40. Available from: https://www.ijnm.in/text.asp?2017/32/3/239/207893
Patient is a 13-year-old female child, a known case of pineoblastoma, who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt diversion followed by a surgical decompression and adjuvant radiation to the brain and spine 2 years back. Baseline spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was negative for disease (images not shown here). The patient was currently asymptomatic, and routine follow-up MRI survey of the brain and spine revealed a T2 hypointense and enhancing intradural lesion in sacral region at S1–S2 level [T2-weighted sagittal, [Figure 1]a and T1-weighted postcontrast sagittal, [Figure 1]b, long white arrows]. Rest of the spine and brain was reported as normal. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was done for restaging the disease and revealed 2-fluorodeoxyglcose uptake in the intraspinal metastases in the sacral region [sagittal fused PET/CT, [Figure 1]c, long white arrows]. In addition, PET/CT identified intracranial metastases in the left pontomedullary cistern, which was not reported on initial read of the brain MRI [transaxial PET; [Figure 1]d, black arrow, transaxial magnetic resonance (MR); [Figure 1]e and fused PET/MR, obtained using an integrated registration software; [Figure 1]f, white arrowhead], multiple skeletal metastases [maximum intensity projection; [Figure 2]a black arrows, and transaxial PET/CT; [Figure 2]b, white arrow], and peritoneal deposit in the pelvis with associated ascites [sagittal PET/CT; [Figure 2]c, white arrow].
|Figure 1: T2-weighted sagittal (a) and T1-weighted post-contrast sagittal (b) and Sagittal fused positron emission tomography/computed tomography (c) showing intradural lesion at level of S1-S2 (long white arrows). Trans-axial positron emission tomography (d) showing focal uptake in the left ponto-medullary cistern (black arrow) characterized better on trans-axial magnetic resonance, (e) and fused positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (f) (white arrowhead)|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: PET Maximum intensity projection image (a) showing multiple FDG avid skeletal lesions (black arrows), trans-axial positron emission tomography/computed tomography (b) showing a metastatic lesion in the right iliac blade (white arrow). Sagittal positron emission tomography/computed tomography image (c) showing a peritoneal deposit in pelvis with associated ascites (white arrow)|
Click here to view
Extraneural (EN) spread from primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors is very rare and seen only in about 0.98% of the patients. In children, primary CNS tumors which have propensity for EN spread includes medulloblastoma, ependymoma, glioblastoma multiforme, pinealoblastoma, and germ cell tumors, with the highest incidence seen in medulloblastomas. The most common sites of metastases include liver, lung, bone, and bone marrow. Studies have also shown an increased incidence of EN metastases in patients with diversion ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Pineoblastomas, a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, constitutes 3%–4% of all pediatric brain tumors and considered to have worse clinical outcomes compared to infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastoma). Pineoblastomas have a propensity to spread along cerebrospinal fluid with leptomeningeal (LM) dissemination seen in up to 23% of patients at initial staging and about 44% patients at disease recurrence in one of the case series. EN skeletal metastases from pineoblastomas have also been previously reported. Few case studies have shown the potential clinical utility of PET/CT in diagnosing LM metastases in non-CNS malignancies although its role in identifying LM/EN metastases from primary CNS tumors remains yet to be explored., PET/CT imaging in addition to MRI can be of potential clinical utility in planning appropriate treatment in high-risk aggressive CNS tumors (such as medulloblastoma/pineoblastoma), as shown in the case above. Early diagnosis and treatment initiation through such precision imaging, although by no means curative, may nonetheless better the quality of life.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Varan A, Sari N, Akalan N, Söylemezoglu F, Akyüz C, Kutluk T, et al.
Extraneural metastasis in intracranial tumors in children: The experience of a single center. J Neurooncol 2006;79:187-90.
Hoffman HJ, Duffner PK. Extraneural metastases of central nervous system tumors. Cancer 1985;56 7 Suppl: 1778-82.
Kleinman GM, Hochberg FH, Richardson EP Jr. Systemic metastases from medulloblastoma: Report of two cases and review of the literature. Cancer 1981;48:2296-309.
Gilheeney SW, Saad A, Chi S, Turner C, Ullrich NJ, Goumnerova L, et al.
Outcome of pediatric pineoblastoma after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol 2008;89:89-95.
Biswas A, Mallick S, Purkait S, Gandhi A, Sarkar C, Singh M, et al.
Treatment outcome and patterns of failure in patients of pinealoblastoma: Review of literature and clinical experience from a regional cancer centre in North India. Childs Nerv Syst 2015;31:1291-304.
Jacobs JJ, Rosenberg AE. Extracranial skeletal metastasis from a pinealoblastoma. A case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1989;(247):256-60.
Short RG, Bal S, German JP, Poelstra RJ, Kardan A. Potential of F-18 PET/CT in the detection of leptomeningeal metastasis. Neuroradiol J 2014;27:685-9.
Komori T, Delbeke D. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and intramedullary spinal cord metastases from lung cancer: Detection with FDG positron emission tomography. Clin Nucl Med 2001;26:905-7.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]