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 Table of Contents     
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-21  

Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays


1 Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Department of Ergonomics, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 Occupational Medicine Research Center, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
4 Medical Student, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran
5 Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadougi University of Medical Science, Yazd, Iran
6 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication24-Jan-2014

Correspondence Address:
Naser Dehghan
Occupational Medicine Research Center, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-3919.125763

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   Abstract 

Background: Lead-based shields are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. Human lead toxicity is well documented. The lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. The aim of this study was to design a lead free paint for protection against X and gamma rays. Materials and Methods: In this pilot st we evaluated several types of nano metal powder that seemed to have good absorption. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different designs. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the attenuation properties of each paint design. Results: Among the different nano metal powder, nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were the two most appropriate candidates for making paint in diagnostic photon energy range. Nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. After this step, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm 3 . The MCNP simulation and experimental measurements for HVL (Half-Value Layer) values of this shield at 100 kVp were 0.25 and 0.23 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed the cost-effective lead-free paint can be a great power in absorbing the X-rays and gamma rays and it can be used instead of lead.

Keywords: Lead-free shields, new radiation shields, nano metal powder, nanopowder, radiation protection, X and gamma rays


How to cite this article:
Movahedi MM, Abdi A, Mehdizadeh A, Dehghan N, Heidari E, Masumi Y, Abbaszadeh M. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays. Indian J Nucl Med 2014;29:18-21

How to cite this URL:
Movahedi MM, Abdi A, Mehdizadeh A, Dehghan N, Heidari E, Masumi Y, Abbaszadeh M. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 12];29:18-21. Available from: http://www.ijnm.in/text.asp?2014/29/1/18/125763


   Introduction Top


Lead shields are used in medical facilities to protect the workers and patients from unnecessary radiation exposure from diagnostic radiology procedures. [1],[2],[3] Lead and some of its alloys are generally the most cost-effective shielding materials to protect against the effects of gamma and X-rays. The properties of lead that make it an excellent shielding material are its density, high atomic number, level of stability, ease of fabrication, high degree of flexibility in application, and availability. [4] Unfortunately, lead may present an insidious health hazard to pediatric patients because of the lead dust that is readily removed from the surface of lead objects in the Nuclear Medicine and Radiological departments. Although the density of lead dust is high, it may still become airborne, contaminate floors and other nearby work surfaces, and be inadvertently inhaled or ingested. [5]

The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10] There are also reports on the need for corrective measures due to corrosion of lead sheets when lead is used for structural shielding. [11] Based on the above mentioned facts, production of environmentally friendly non-toxic lead-free radiation shields which provide less weight compared to conventional lead-based shields remains a challenging issue in radiation protection. [12] The use of lead free shields has been associated with some unexpected problems such as being efficient only at a limited tube-voltage range. [13],[14] Efforts have been made globally for finding new materials and designs for production of lead-free radiation shields. [15],[16]

According to the above reports there are environmental issues with its disposal secondary to its known toxicity. In this study, we designed a new non-lead paint based on nano metal powder. The purpose of this pilot study is to construct a paint that can be applied everywhere and with such as non-toxic, light weight and high absorbency properties.


   Materials and Methods Top


This pilot study had two phases. In the first phase, we studied a wide variety of nano metal compounds which potentially could be appropriate radiation shields against X and gamma ray. MCNP4c (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different percentages of nano-materials and varied designs. [17] Photon absorption rates was simulated with MCNP4C CODE of Monte Carlo software and tally F 4 and F 5 . The experimental set-up used in our simulation was based on the RAD 60 X-ray tube (Varian medical Systems, CA) material composition and target dimensions. We used the point detector tally measure of photon flux at a point (unit is photons/cm 2 or MeV/cm 2 ), which is normalized to be per starting particle. The X-ray beam is produced as electrons slowdown in the anode; encounter some attenuation in the anode material depending on the anode angle and the beam direction. The tube voltage was considered 100 kVp. The 6.5 × 10 8 photon was transported in each program running and transported X-ray from the layers was obtained. Their curves were provided with SPSS v. 19 software. Area under the curve was indicated to the intensity of transported X-ray and the best composition was selected by comparing these curves.

In the next step, different nano metal powders were dispersed in epoxy paints to assess their attenuation properties. In this regard, the attenuation of poly-energetic X-rays emitted by a diagnostic CPI (CMP200 with Varian tube) X-ray machine was measured under good geometry conditions. Dose rates were measured using a Farmer type ion chamber (Wellhöfer, Model FC65-G, made in USA. Ngas/(NxAIon) (cGy/R): 0.854, Sensitive volume: 0.65 cm 3 , Sensitivity (nom.): 0.21 nC/cGy) and a Wellhöfer DOSE-1 electrometer [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Farmer type ion chamber (Wellhöfer, Model FC65-G)

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Figure 2: The Wellhöfer DOSE-1 electrometer used in study

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   Results Top


In this study, we found nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were two most appropriate candidates for radiation shielding and they were selected in order to produce the absorber paint. A mixture of nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. Radiation intensity after passing through various layers of paint is shown in [Table 1] using MCNP modeling. The highest attenuation was obtained in combination of two non-lead metals (15% nano tungsten trioxide and 85% nano tin dioxide). The attenuation of lead shields was much lower than that of the non-lead paint layer. The densities of nano lead and nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints were 4.79 and 4.16 g/cm 3 , respectively. HVL values were measured by passing radiation through a layer of 2 mm thickness of nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) powder in epoxy paint matrix [Table 2]. HVL measurement was done based on beer lambert law. HVL values were measured by passing the radiation through a layer of 2 mm thickness of nano lead powder in grease matrix which is presented in [Table 3].
Table 1: MCNP results of radiation intensity after passing from shields with different compositions

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Table 2: The HVL determination by measuring the radiation intensity after passing a layer of 2 mm thickness of nano epoxy paint

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Table 3: The HVL determination by measuring the radiation intensity after passing a layer of 2 mm thickness of lead powder in the grease matrix

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In the next stage, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide epoxy paints which could be used for preparation of shielding garments. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm 3 . The MCNP simulation value for HVL of this shield was 0.28 mm at 100 kVp. On the other hand, narrow beam absorption measurements indicated a HVL of 0.23 mm.


   Discussion Top


As the results showed a combination of the nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best radiation shielding property in both simulation and experiments. This experiment guides to the manufacturing of the appropriate epoxy paint as the matrix and different nano metal powders as the absorbent elements. There are many rich mines of tin and tungsten in Iran, the production cost of this paint is economic. The cost-effective lead-free paint produced in this study with features such as non-toxic, resistant to erosion, lightweight and with widely applicable on the equipment and walls radiology and nuclear medicine sections, offers effective radiation protection in a diagnostic energy range. Due to its main properties such as low density, high atomic number, level of stability, ease of fabrication, high degree of flexibility in application, and availability, lead has been introduced as a popular radiation shield. However, lead contamination at superfund sites presents a threat to human health and the environment and according to US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), lead is the second substance of the top 20 hazardous substances list. This pilot study helps scientists to substitute nano materials for radiation protection against X and gamma radiation in Nuclear and Radiological department.


   Conclusion Top


The layers made of nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) in an epoxy paint matrix could be considered as a non-toxic, resistant to erosion, lightweight and with widely applicable on the equipment and walls substitute for conventional lead shields.


   Acknowledgment Top


The new designed paint has been registered in the Iranian Intellectual Properties and Technology Institute as an invention (reference No. 79340).

 
   References Top

1.Jankowski CB. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines. J Nurs Adm 1992;22:30-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Ngaile JE, Uiso CB, Msaki P, Kazema R. Use of lead shields for radiation protection of superficial organs in patients undergoing head CT examinations. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2008;130:490-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.McGinley PH, Miner MS. A history of radiation shielding of X-ray therapy rooms. Health Phys 1995;69:759-65.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Hulbert SM, Carlson KA. Is lead dust within nuclear medicine departments a hazard to pediatric patients? J Nucl Med Technol 2009;37:170-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Klein RC, Weilandics C. Potential health hazards from lead shielding. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1996;57:1124-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Verstraeten SV, Aimo L, Oteiza PI. Aluminium and lead: Molecular mechanisms of brain toxicity. Arch Toxicol 2008;82:789-802.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Coon T, Miller M, Shirazi F, Sullivan J. Lead toxicity in a 14-year-old female with retained bullet fragments. Pediatrics 2006;117:227-30.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Healey N. Lead toxicity, vulnerable subpopulations and emergency preparedness. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2009;134:143-51.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Heath LM, Soole KL, McLaughlin ML, McEwan GT, Edwards JW. Toxicity of environmental lead and the influence of intestinal absorption in children. Rev Environ Health 2003;18:231-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Millstone E, Russell J. Lead toxicity and public health policy. J R Soc Health 1995;115:347-50.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Schick DK, Casey RN, Sim LH, Siddle KJ. Corrosion of lead shielding in a radiology department. Australas Radiol 1999;43:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Uthoff H, Peña C, West J, Contreras F, Benenati JF, Katzen BT. Evaluation of novel disposable, light-weight radiation protection devices in an interventional radiology setting: A randomized controlled trial. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013;200:915-20.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Eder H, Schlattl H, Hoeschen C. X-Ray protective clothing: Does DIN 6857-1 allow an objective comparison between lead-free and lead-composite materials? Rofo 2010;182:422-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Finnerty M, Brennan PC. Protective aprons in imaging departments: Manufacturer stated lead equivalence values require validation. Eur Radiol 2005;15:1477-84.  Back to cited text no. 14
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15.Simons GR, Orrison WW Jr. Use of a sterile, disposable, radiation- absorbing shield reduces occupational exposure to scatter radiation during pectoral device implantation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004;27:726-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
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16.Katoh Y, Fukushi M, Abe S, Nyui Y, Numano T, Kimura J, et al. Evaluation of non-lead board as X-ray protective material. [Article in Japanese]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2007;63:428-35.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Ay MR, Shahriari M, Sarkar S, Adib M, Zaidi H. Monte carlo simulation of X-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology and mammography using MCNP4C. Phys Med Biol 2004;49:4897-917.  Back to cited text no. 17
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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