Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Home | About IJNM | Search | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Ahead of Print | Online submissionLogin 
Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine
  Editorial Board | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact
Users Online: 224 Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
 Table of Contents     
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 56-57  

Nuclear denotation: A topic for global public health concern


Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, Thailand

Date of Web Publication7-Sep-2011

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, 10330
Thailand
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-3919.84619

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Nuclear denotation: A topic for global public health concern. Indian J Nucl Med 2011;26:56-7

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Nuclear denotation: A topic for global public health concern. Indian J Nucl Med [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Dec 16];26:56-7. Available from: http://www.ijnm.in/text.asp?2011/26/1/56/84619

Sir,

In mid of March 2011, a big Tsunami attacked Japan and caused serious destruction. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, disruption of the nuclear plants occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. Nuclear denotation is an actually interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires our attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic.

Nowadays, it is widely accepted that there are many natural disasters. Earthquakes, floods and tsunamis are very common in the present decade. Usually, any disaster causes severe loss. In mid of March 2011, a big earthquake occurred in the Pacific Ocean next to the Japanese coast and it generated a big tsunami attacking several seashore communities of Japan. [1] This caused thousands of deaths and massive destruction of infrastructure. It caused a loss worth millions of US dollars. [1]

However, this specific natural disaster led to an interesting consequence which has never happened before. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, the disruption of the nuclear plants has occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. The widespread nuclear particles from disrupted nuclear plants have become a big issue in the present day. The nuclear denotation is an actual interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic.

"Nuclear" is a new term that human beings have known for just less than a century. The first evidence on the health effects of nuclear power came after the atomic bombing of Japan that led to the cessation of the World War II. This episode caused several deaths and many health disorders to the survivors. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] Of several interesting problems, a long-term follow-up showed that the incidence of cancer is significantly increased in the survivors from atomic bombing.

However, this is the only evidence of the side effects of nuclear weapons. In the past decades, nuclear power had changed into clear power as the source of peaceful energy in many countries. Many nuclear plants have been set up in many countries such as USA, Russia and Japan. First, it was believed that the nuclear plants were safe and there were many protocols to warrant the safety. Many reports confirmed that the people around the atomic nuclear electricity plant had no risk. [12],[13] However, the problem of nuclear denotation finally occurred.

The problem of leakage is a serious concern of the radiation hazard. The most famous episode is the explosion of the atomic nuclear plant in Russia. This episode is called Chernobyl crisis (April 26, 1986). [14],[15] Nadezhina reported on his experience in organizing medical care for the victims of the accident and proposed that therapy of such patients should be developed along the following lines: 1) prevention and therapy of infectious complications; 2) blood cell substitution therapy; 3) bone marrow transplantation; 4) detoxicating therapy; 5) correction of water-electrolyte metabolism; and 6) therapy of local radiation injuries. [16]

There are many interesting reports on the health effects caused in the population affected by this crisis. Changes in the indicators of bone marrow and blood were reported among the affected cases. [17] A significant change in thyroid gland was also observed and this was the warning sign of the nuclear denotation induced thyroid cancer. [18],[19] On the carcinogenesis process, Yarilin et al. said, "It has been proposed that radiation alters the function of thymic epithelial cells by direct action and/or through indirect mechanisms including participation of autoantibodies. The observed complex of alterations is similar to that in the normal process of immunological aging". [20]

The present Japanese nuclear denotation crisis can be one of the serious nuclear accidents in the human history. Until now, the leakage of the radiation has not been controlled. Contamination of aerosols, water as well as foods from Japan with radioactive particles is continuously being reported. There is no doubt that there should be a good preparedness to this episode.

Avoidance of visiting to the disaster area is required. It is also recommended to avoid using any food or other products originating from the affected area. A close observation of the reported radiation contamination in the atmosphere in the nearby area is recommended. Potassium iodide prophylaxis might be useful in prevention of cancer induction by contaminated radioactive material. [21],[22],[23] Finally, after the successful control on the leakage, remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues is required. [24]

Continuous monitoring of the health effects among the affected population is required. In the area with reportedly high level of radiation, a long-term follow-up of the blood parameters and occurrence of cancer, especially thyroid cancer, is recommended.

The big earthquake crisis of March 2011 in Japan has led to nuclear denotation which has necessitated public health preparedness to fight with the leakage of the radioactive material.

 
   References Top

1.Matsumoto M, Inoue K. Earthquake, tsunami, radiation leak, and crisis in rural health in Japan. Rural Remote Health 2011;11:1759.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Beebe GW, Kato H. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. E. Cancers other than leukemia. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:97-107.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Awa AA. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. B. Genetic effects. 2. Cytogenetic study. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:75-81.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kato H. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. B. Genetic effects. 1. Early genetic surveys and mortality study. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:67-74.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Okita T. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. A. Acute effects. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:49-66.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Beebe GW, Hamilton HB. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. III. Future research and health surveillance. B. Future research. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:149-64.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Beebe GW, Hamilton HB. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. III. Future research and health surveillance. A. Health surveillance studies. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:138-48.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Dodo T. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. H. Cataracts. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:132-7.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Awa AA. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. G. Chromosome aberrations in somatic cells. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:122-31.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Finch SC, Beebe GW. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. F. Aging. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:108-21.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Ichimaru M, Ishimaru T. Review of thirty years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. II. Biological effects. D. Leukemia and related disorders. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 1975;16 Suppl:89-96.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Kozlov VM, Zykova AS, Zhakov IuA, Iambrovskiĭ IaM. Radiation safety of the population in the region of atomic electric power stations. Gig Sanit 1970;35:54-6.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Arkhangel'skaia IG, Tsukanov IF, Verbitskiĭ BV, Riakhovskiĭ AV. Characteristics of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere of the premises of the Novo-Voronezh NPS. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1970;14:41-3.   Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Perry AR, Iglar AF. The accident at Chernobyl: radiation doses and effects. Radiol Technol 1990;61:290-4.   Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.Il'in LA, Balonov MI, Buldakov LA, Bur'iak VN, Gordeev KI. The ecological characteristics and biomedical consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Med Radiol (Mosk) 1989;34:59-81.   Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    
16.Nadezhina NM. Experience in organizing medical care for the victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station at a specialized hospital. Med Radiol (Mosk) 1990;35:40-1.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    
17.Lenskaia RV, Rumiantsev AG, Buiankin VM, Ageĭkin VA, Baĭdun LV, Borodina TM, et al. Changes in the indicators of bone marrow and blood based on the complex cytological examination of 28 children from the Bryansk region 1 year after the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power plant. Gematol Transfuziol 1991;36:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Kriukov EA. Ultrasonic study of the thyroid in the population living in areas contaminated by radioactive substances after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Voen Med Zh 1992;9:12-3.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Chernobyl 7 years after the disaster. Increased number of thyroid cancer. Lakartidningen 1993;90:1934.   Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Yarilin AA, Belyakov IM, Kusmenok OI, Arshinov VY, Simonova AV, Nadezhina NM, et al. Late T cell deficiency in victims of the Chernobyl radiation accident: Possible mechanisms of induction. Int J Radiat Biol 1993;63:519-28.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]    
21.Blando J, Robertson C, Pearl K, Dixon C, Valcin M, Bresnitz E. Evaluation of potassium iodide prophylaxis knowledge and nuclear emergency preparedness: New Jersey 2005. Am J Public Health 2007;97 Suppl 1:S100-2.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
22.Shleien B, Halperin JA, Bilstad JM, Botstein P, Dutra EV Jr. Recommendations on the use of potassium iodide as a thyroid-blocking agent in radiation accidents: an FDA update. Bull N Y Acad Med 1983;59:1009-19.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
23.Yalow RS. Risks in mass distribution of potassium iodide. Bull N Y Acad Med 1983;59:1020-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
24.González AJ. International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues. J Environ Radioact 2010 [In Press].  Back to cited text no. 24
    




 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1040    
    Printed90    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded48    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal